Dr. Adham Saouli is Lecturer of Politics and International Relations at the University of Edinburgh. He is the director of the MSc. program in International Relations of the Middle East. Saouli’s research focuses on state formation and foreign policy of Arab states, IR theory, social movements, and political socialisation of non-state actors. He is the author of The Arab State: Dilemmas of Late Formation (Routledge, 2012), and has published in Political Studies, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Orient, Third World Quarterly, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, World Affairs, and Journal of Social, Political, and Economical Studies. He is currently doing research on Hizbullah’s political socialisation.